Qurbani is a practice commanded by Allah:
فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وانْحَرْ
So, turn in prayer towards your Lord and sacrifice (animals). (108.2)
عَنْ عائِشَةَ قالَتْ: قالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: «
ما عَمِلَ ابْنُ آدَمَ مِن عَمَلٍ يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ أحَبَّ إلى اللَّهِ مِن إهْراقِ الدَّمِ وإنَّهُ لَيُؤْتى يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ بِقُرُونِها وأشْعارِها وأظْلافِها وإنَّ الدَّمَ لَيَقَعُ مِنَ الله بمَكان قبل أن يَقع بِالأرْضِ فيطيبوا بها نفسا». (رَواهُ التِّرْمِذِيّ وابْن ماجَه)
There is nothing dearer to Allah during the days of Qurbani than the sacrificing of animals. The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of judgment with its horns, hair, and hooves (to be weighed). The sacrifice is accepted by Allah before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore, sacrifice with an open and happy heart.
(Tirmizi, Ibne Majah)
وعَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أرْقَمَ – قالَ: «قالَ أصْحابُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ﷺ : يا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، ما هَذِهِ الأضاحِيُّ؟ قالَ: سُنَّةُ أبِيكُمْ إبْراهِيمُ ﷺ قالُوا: فَما لَنا فِيها يا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ؟ قالَ: بِكُلِّ شَعْرَةٍ حَسَنَةٌ. قالُوا: فالصُّوفُ يا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ؟ قالَ: بِكُلِّ شَعْرَةٍ مِنَ الصُّوفِ حَسَنَةٌ». (رَواهُ أحْمَدُ ، وابْنُ ماجَهْ)
Zayd lbne Arqam t relates that the Companions j asked, “O Rasoolullah ﷺ What is Qurbani?” He replied, “It is the sunnah of your father lbraheem u.” They asked again, “What benefit do we get from it?” He answered, “A reward for every hair (of the sacrificed animal).” “And (what reward is there for animals with) wool, 0 Rasoolullah ﷺ?” they asked. “A reward”, he said, “for every fibre of the wool.”
Witness your Qurbani being performed
عن علي t أن رسول الله ﷺ قال : يا فاطمة ! قومي فاشهدي أضحيتك ، فإن لك بأول قطرة تقطر من دمها مغفرة لكل ذنب ، أما إنه يجاء بدمها ولحمها فيوضع في ميزانك سبعين ضعفاً…
Hazrat Ali t narrates that Rasulullah ﷺ said to Fatimah k: “Oh Fatimah, stand and be present at the time when your animal is being sacrificed, for all your sins will be forgiven when the first drop of blood falls to the ground. Verily it will come with its blood and its meat and it will be placed on the scale of deeds and multiplied 70 times. (Targheeb)
The Masnoon Duas
عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِىَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ : ذَبَحَ النَّبِىُّ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يَوْمَ الذَّبْحِ كَبْشَيْنِ أَقْرَنَيْنِ أَمْلَحَيْنِ مَوْجِيَّيْنِ فَلَمَّا وَجَّهَهُمَا قَالَ :« إِنِّى وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِىَ لِلَّذِى فَطَرَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ عَلَى مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ إِنَّ صَلاَتِى وَنُسُكِى وَمَحْيَاىَ وَمَمَاتِى لِلَّهُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ اللَّهُمَّ مِنْكَ وَلَكَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ وَأُمَّتِهِ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ ». ثُمَّ ذَبَحَ –
Hazrat Jaabir t Narrates, Rasulullah ﷺ slaughtered two black and white, horned and castrated sheep on the day of Qurbani. When he faced them towards the Qiblah he recited
إِنِّى وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِىَ لِلَّذِى فَطَرَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ عَلَى مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ إِنَّ صَلاَتِى وَنُسُكِى وَمَحْيَاىَ وَمَمَاتِى لِلَّهُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ اللَّهُمَّ مِنْكَ وَلَكَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ وَأُمَّتِهِ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ
The Sunnah Method of Slaughtering
عن أنس قال : ضَحَّى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بِكَبْشَيْنِ أَمْلَحَيْنِ فَرَأَيْتُهُ وَاضِعًا قَدَمَهُ عَلى صِفَاحِهِمَا يُسمِّي وَيُكَبِّرُ فَذَبَحَهُمَا بِيَدِهِ
Hazrat Anas t narrates that Rasulullah ﷺ slaughtered two black and white rams. I saw him placing his foot upon the sides (of the animals) reciting Bismillah as well as the Takbeer. He then slaughtered both the animals with his own hands. (Bukhari)
Warning to those who Ignore Qurbaani
وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: مَنْ كَانَ لَهُ سَعَةٌ وَلَمْ يُضَحِّ فَلَا يَقْرَبَنَّ مُصَلَّانَا. (رواه ابن ماجه)
Hazrat Abu Hurayrah t reports that Rasulullah ﷺ said, “He who has the means for performing Qurbaani but does not do so, should not come close to our Eidgah (Place of Eid Salaah)
Qurbani on behalf of Nabi ﷺ
Hadhrat Abu Talhah t narrates that Rasulullah ﷺ sacrificed one sheep for himself and one sheep on behalf of his Ummah. In this regard Rasulullah ﷺ said: “This Qurbaani is for the one in my Ummah who believes in me and who acknowledges me.” (Tabraani, Mustadrak)
N.B: If one has the means and one has wealth that it is recommended to perform Qurbani on behalf of Nabi ﷺ after ones Waajib Qurbani.
On Whom Is Qurbani Wajib?
Qurbani is wajib on every Muslim who is of sound mind, mature (who has reached the age of puberty), muqeem (i.e. he is not a Shar’ee traveler) and possesses the amount of Nisaab.
Days Of Qurbani
The days of Qurbani are the tenth, eleventh and twelfth of Zul Hijjah. The first day is better than the second, and the second better than the last.
TIME FOR QURBANI
In towns and cities where Jumu’ah and ‘Eid are performed, Qurbani is not permissible before the ‘Eid Salat. If the Qurbani has been offered before the ‘Eid Salat, it will have to be repeated. Therefore, the time for Qurbani commences after ‘Eid Salat on 1Oth Zul Hijjah until before sunset of 12th Zul Hijjah.
It is permissible, but not preferable to perform Qurbani at night.
The Qurbani Animal
- It is permissible to offer in sacrifice a goat or she-goat, sheep of all kinds, cow, bull, buffalo or camel.
- It is necessary that the goat is one (full) year old, whether male or female. A cow, bull or buffalo will have to be two years old, and a camel five years. Animals that are younger are not suitable for Qurbani.
- A sheep (of any kind) not less than six months old, so strong and fat that it appears to be one year old will suffice for Qurbani, otherwise it will have to be one (full) year old.
- A cow, bull, buffalo or camel will suffice for seven persons provided no one’s share is less than one seventh and the niyyah (intention) of all partners is to attain thawab (for Qurbani), and not merely to obtain meat.
- The Qurbani of only one person can be performed from a goat, sheep or ram.
- If an animal seller says that the animal has reached the required age, and outwardly there is no sign to disprove it, then it is permissible to rely on his statement.
- Animals that are castrated can be used for Qurbani. In fact, this type of animal is preferable.
The Following Cannot He Used For Qurbani:
- Animals that are blind, one-eyed or has lost one-third or more of its eyesight.
- Animals that have lost a third of the ear or the tail. Similarly, the animal which has no ear from its very birth.
- Animal whose horn has been broken off from the root.
- Animal which has one leg lame to the extent that it walks on three legs only and is unable to use the fourth leg.
- Animal so lean and thin that its bones have no marrow.
- Animal so weak that it cannot walk to the place of slaughtering on its own.
- Animal completely toothless or one that has lost most of its teeth.
- It is virtuous to purchase the animal for Qurbani a few days prior to slaughtering and care must be taken in feeding and nursing it.
Masnoon Method Of Sacrifice
- It is more virtuous to slaughter the animal with one’s own hands. If one does not know how to slaughter, it is preferred that he remain present while someone else is sacrificing the animal. It is not necessary to make the niyyah (intention) of Qurbani with the tongue, however it is necessary to say Bismillahi Allahu Akbar when slaughtering.
- Use a sharp knife and slaughter the animal quickly so that it does not suffer.
- Do not sharpen the knife in front of the animal.
- After slaughtering, do not skin the animal before it becomes completely cold.
- Do not slaughter one animal in the presence of another.
- It is mustahab (desirable) for one who intends to perform Qurbani to refrain from cutting hair or clipping nails from 1st Zul Hijjah to 10th Zul Hijjah, (i.e. until after Qurbani).
The Qurbani Meat And Skin
- It is permissible to eat the Qurbani meat.
- It can also be distributed to relatives and friends whether wealthy or poor, Muslims or non-Muslims. It is better to divide it into three parts. One for the family, one for relatives and friends and one for the poor and needy.
- The skin of the Qurbani animal can be kept for personal use, e.g. using it as a prayer-mat, water bag, etc.
- If the skin of the Qurbani animal is sold, then it is Waajib to give that amount in sadaqah to the poor (i.e. those who are eligible for Zakah).
- It is not permissible to give meat, fat, etc. of the sacrificed animal to the butcher as his wages.
- The meat of the animal slaughtered by partners should be shared by weight and not by estimation.
- The rope, cover, etc. of the animal should be given away as sadaqah.